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Rev. biol. mar. oceanogr. 51(1): 161-170



Compounds isolated from Salinispora arenicola of the Gulf of California, México

Ana M. Íñiguez-Martínez1,2, Faviola Cardoso-Martínez1,3, José de la Rosa3, Mercedes Cueto3, Ana Díaz-Marrero3,4, José Darias3, Amayaly Becerril-Espinosa1, Luis J. Plata-Rosas2 and Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo.o1

1Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Baja California, México
2Centro Universitario de la Costa, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Universidad de Guadalajara No. 203, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México
3Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología, C.S.I.C., Av. Astrofísico F. Sánchez, 3. La Laguna, 38206, Tenerife, España 
4Instituto Universitario de Bioorgánica AG, Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Canarias (CIBICAN), Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico F. Sánchez, 2, 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife, España

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The southwestern Gulf of California has high-value commercial fisheries; however, there are few studies of the taxonomic diversity of fish in this area. Surveys of taxonomic diversity of the fish assemblage at 8 localities near the shore of Bahía de La Paz were undertaken from March 2002 to April 2003. Seasonal changes in diversity of rocky reef fish were analyzed, including taxonomic distance among fish species, using the alpha, alpha average, beta, and gamma diversity indices, the taxonomic distinctness index (TD D*), and the average taxonomic distinctness index (AvTD D+). Submarine visual censuses were carried out along 48 transects measuring 100 × 5 m (500 m2) at 5 m average depth from 09:00-16:00 h. Two seasons were studied: winter with an average temperature of 22.57°C, and summer with an average temperature of 27.09°C. 24,633 fishes, belonging to 92 species and 67 genera were recorded. According to the alpha average, beta, and gamma diversity indices, August had the highest diversity (19.5, 40.5, and 60 species, respectively), and December had the lowest diversity (20.6, 27.4, and 48 species, respectively). Spatial analysis of TD and AvTD were not significantly different, and analysis by season of these indices was not significant different. Greater anthropogenic impact would cause differences in TD and AvTD found at El Guano compared with other locations.
The marine actinobacterium AMS370, identified as Salinispora arenicola by 16S rRNA amplified gene comparison, was isolated from sediments of the Gulf of California, Mexico. From its semi-polar extract, 8 known compounds were isolated: 4-Hydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (1), 5-Methyl-2-methylene-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrimidin-4-one (2), 1H-Pyrimidine-2,4-dione (3), 3-amino-5-hydroxy-benzoic acid (4), 2-(4-Amino-imidazol-[4,5-d]pyridazin-1-yl)-5-hydroxymethyl-4-methyl-tetrahydro-furan-3-ol (5), 3-(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (6), 3-Benzyl-6-isobutyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (7) and 5,8-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (Ergosterol peroxide) (8). The chemical identification was performed by comparison of their NMR spectra against the NMR spectra of the original compounds. This is the first time that compound 4 is reported as a natural product obtained from the Salinispora genus. The crude extract and all the fractions obtained were tested for antibiotic activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and antifungic activity against Candida albicans. Also, breast cancer (MCF-7), cervical cancer (HeLa) and colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116) were tested to determine their cytotoxic activity. Only the semi-polar crude extract and its fractions 5.1 and 5.2 were active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

Key words: Marine actinobateria, antibacterial activity, cytotoxic activity, Gulf of California